Placedo provides the way or path to a better understanding of the use of placebos for health and wellbeing. Synonymous with Placebism, these web pages offer a rational discussion on complementary and alternative health claims – enabling patients, professionals and politicians to think critically, avoid fraud and protect the interests of the vulnerable and gullible.
Revealing these secrets may result in opposition from those with vested interests and denigration from the greedy who prey on the needy – but if patients are to give meaningful consent, they must be fully informed about all the isues. As must orthodox practitioners.
Placebo means ‘I will please’. In the Middle Ages, placebo singers attended funerals to assist the departure of souls. Since the eighteenth century the term ‘placebo effects’ or ‘placebo responses’ has described patients’ psychological, physiological, emotional and spiritual experiences resulting from certain treatments, remedies and healthcare practices – though placebos do not have any direct specific effects on pathology, disease, disability or illness.
Do is Japanese for ‘the way or path’. Placedo reflects the interest many have in combining Western and Oriental philosophical traditions.
Placebism also represents the dimension of placebo studies and practice, but with a less esoteric flavour. Feel free to choose which term you use.
In 469 BC Socrates said ‘The cure itself is a certain leaf, but in addition to the drug there is a certain charm – but without the charm there is no profit from the leaf.’ More recently Arthur Shapiro advised: ‘The history of medicine is largely the history of placebo effects. The placebo may be an inert sugar pill, an active drug, or any treatment no matter how potentially specific or by whom administered…which is ineffective or not specifically effective for the symptom or disease.’ (The Powerful Placebo 2000).
Dr. Archie Cochrane said: ‘The effect of placebos has been shown by randomised controlled trials to be very large. Their use in the correct place is to be encouraged …’ The Cochrane Collaboration was named to recognise his work in promoting evidence-based medicine and systematic reviews of scientific and medical articles and publications. The Collaboration believes that effective health care is created through equal partnerships between researcher, provider, practitioner and patient and its work is internationally recognised as the benchmark for high quality information about the effectiveness of health care.
Placebos work by stimulating the release of neurotransmitters, of which there are more than fifty including amino acids, peptides, monoamines, opioids, cannabinoids, endorphins, and particularly, where pleasure is concerned, dopamine. In his seminal paper The Powerful Placebo (JAMA 1955); Dr. Henry Beecher taught ‘To array a man’s will against his sickness is the supreme art of medicine.’
Placebos work by harnessing the imagination, stimulating response expectances and through the power of suggestion. As does hypnosis. Placedo contends that since both placebo and hypnotic effects are achieved by the same mechanism, mediated by the same neurochemicals and both have the same objects of giving pleasure and satisfying patients – placebo effects may be regarded as resulting from hypnosis. These effects may be achieved by auto-hypnotism or be facilitated by a practitioner. The methods comprise facilitated focussed concentration and imaginative experiences for patients or subjects who are receptive to suggestions. Those who study and utilise these effects, who follow placedo or practice placebism, are termed placebists.
As Professor Irving Kirsch, Director of Placebo Studies, Harvard University puts it: ‘Hypnotic inductions are expectancy modification procedures that produce placebo effects without the use of placebos. In fact, it is possible to produce all of the suggested effects of hypnosis by giving subjects a placebo and telling them that it produces a hypnotic state.’
There are no molecules demonstrably affecting any pathological process in homeopathic remedies; no ‘subluxations’ which, if ‘adjusted’, result in benefit to any specific somatic disorder; no points or meridians which, if stimulated by needles, result in any greater benefit than can be achieved by placebo techniques; no unidentified ‘vital forces’ in herbal preparations other than chemicals as analysed by orthodox pharmacologists; no ‘auras’, ‘energies’ or occult esoteric forces which may ‘heal’ after hand positioning, touching, or thoughts; no ‘healing forces’ in crystals and other substances not known to conventional science. However, all these practices, remedies, techniques and methods may induce placebo responses which may benefit patients as evidenced by their declared experiences of ‘feeling better’.
Placebists offer consolation for present suffering, hope for the future and love at all times.
Placedo is offered as a benefit to practitioners and patients who seek to further their understanding of placebo effects and responses. The book Real Secrets of Alternative Medicine sets out these themes more comprehensively and is available through Amazon and Kindle. Its Index is on this web site.
Dr. Richard Rawlins MB BS MBA FRCS is a Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon, former Chairman of the UK Consultants Conference, of the BMA’s Clinical Audit Committee and of the Health Quality Service’s Advisory Council. Richard is an Expert Witness for the Courts, a Freeman of the City of London, a member of the editorial board of Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies (FACT), a Member of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries and a Member of the Magic Circle.
Richard brings the insights and intuition of a magician and experience as a doctor and surgeon to a critical consideration of contemporary health care practices.